Amalie “Emmy” Noether was a pioneer of abstract algebra. She was also a trailblazer who refused to accept that women should not join the pursuit of knowledge. When Germany’s Nazi government hounded her out of academia, she taught in secret. Today, Noether’s theorem underpins much of modern physics.
Maryam Mirzakhani was an Iranian mathematician and a professor of mathematics at Stanford University. Her research topics included Teichmüller theory, hyperbolic geometry, ergodic theory, and symplectic geometry.