Galileo’s Middle Finger

Galileo's Middle Finger

Galileo Galilei, the father of modern science, was subjected to immense public scrutiny during his lifetime. He was a staunch advocate for the heliocentric model and was condemned for heresy by the Catholic Church. In 1633, he was placed under house arrest for the remainder of his life. But people don’t know that even after his death, the church continued to show disdain for him. One of the most remarkable examples of this is the story of Galileo’s middle finger.

The finger is a remarkable bit of irony: venerated, kept in a shrine, subjected to the same treatment as a saintly relic. But this finger belonged to no saint. It is the long, bony finger of an enemy of the church, a heretic.

As with a glass of fine wine, it took some years for Galileo’s finger to age into something worth snapping off his skeletal hand. The finger was removed by one Anton Francesco Gori on March 12, 1737, 95 years after Galileo’s death. Passed around for a few hundred years, it finally came to rest in the Florence History of Science Museum, which has since become the Museo Galileo.

In 2009, two more fingers and a tooth belonging to Galileo were discovered at an auction. The spare parts had disappeared in 1905 and were not seen for 100 years. But then the purchaser deduced their origin and returned them to the Science Museum, where they matched a detailed description from when they were last seen.

Today, the middle finger sits in a small glass egg among lodestones and telescopes, the only human fragment in a museum devoted entirely to scientific instruments. It is hard to know how Galileo would have felt about the final resting place of his finger. Whether the finger points upwards to the sky, where Galileo glimpsed the glory of the universe and saw God in mathematics, or if it sits eternally defiant to the church that condemned him, is for the viewer to decide.

Despite the remarkable tale of Galileo’s middle finger, this incident is just a microcosm of the larger conflict between the church and science. The Catholic Church’s acceptance of Galileo’s heliocentric theory took centuries; even today, science often conflicts with religious beliefs.

Galileo’s middle finger is a symbol of scientific progress and the freedom of thought that is necessary for the advancement of knowledge. It is a reminder that even in the face of persecution, one can still fight for what they believe is true. The finger’s journey from heretic to relic is an impressive feat, and it continues to intrigue and inspire those who hear its tale. Galileo’s finger serves as a symbol of hope for the future of science, a beacon that reminds us that even in the darkest of times, knowledge and truth will always find a way to shine through.

You may also enjoy reading these:

• Galileo’s Middle Finger: Heretics, Activists, and One Scholar’s Search for Justice
• 8 Beautiful Books from the Welcome to the Museum Series
• Möbius Ship by Tim Hawkinson

• Richard Feynman’s Notebook: How He Taught Himself Calculus
• Newton’s College Notebook
• John Nash’s Recommendation Letter for Princeton University
• Paul Dirac’s PhD Thesis: the First Ever Written on Quantum Mechanics
• The Harvard Library That Protects The World’s Rarest Colors

Ali Kaya


Ali Kaya

This is Ali. Bespectacled and mustachioed father, math blogger, and soccer player. I also do consult for global math and science startups.

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