Ernst Mach

Mach established an early version of scientific positivism by insisting that sensation serves as the data for all physical and psychological science. As such, it gave Külpe and Titchener an epistemological framework for their developing ideas. Mach also contributed to the foundation for the Gestaltists’ eventual acceptance of the phenomenal status of extension and duration by viewing space and time as the immediate data of experience rather than as Kantian categories.