Chaos theory models how a population of living creatures changes from one generation to the next, when there are limits to the available resources. It is one of the simplest equations that can generate deterministic chaos—apparently random behavior with no random cause. Chaos theory led us to realize that simple nonlinear equations can create very complex dynamics and that apparent randomness may conceal hidden order. Popularly known as Chaos Theory, this discovery has innumerable applications, including the motion of the planets in the solar system, weather forecasting, population dynamics in ecology, variable stars, earthquake modeling, and efficient trajectories for space probes.

## The Formula to Get 42 Billion Digits of π

While writing "7 Utterly Well-written Math Books About Pi," I found a very interesting math formula that will give you 42 consecutive digits of π accurately but is still wrong.