It takes a solid understanding of how random chance functions to make wise decisions when faced with uncertainty. In a nutshell, it necessitates knowledge of probability. John Haigh offers a brief history of the evolution of probability theory, from Galileo and Pascal to Bayes, Laplace, Poisson, and Markov, in this Very Short Introduction. He also explains the concepts of probability and the many philosophical approaches to probability. He explores a wide range of applications in science, economics, and a variety of other contexts, such as games and betting, after describing the fundamental probability distributions. He ends by engaging in a fascinating study of coincidences and a few intriguing paradoxes.